Today, there are more than 1000 articles on the Hardiness concept in the areas of health and medicine, nursing, academia, public safety, sport, family and the military. Dr. Salvatore R. Maddi Ph.D., founder of the Hardiness concept began his research in 1975 at the Illinois Bell Telephone Company.

It’s clear he was on to something by the massive research that followed his pioneering efforts. Hardiness continues to be researched and practiced in a wide-range of settings for over 30 years.